The pumps can be of the combustion type, i.e. with an engine that generates energy through the combustion of fuel, or they can be electric. Obviously there are also simple ones operated mechanically by hand, but we will not consider them in this guide. This guide therefore aims to guide the consumer in the purchase of electric water suction pumps, illustrating the different models and the characteristics of each. The main characteristics that must be considered are their prevalence and scope. Flow rate means how much water can be moved by the pump in a certain period of time, therefore the flow rate is a quantity given by the ratio between volume in cubic meters and time in hours or between volume in liters and time in minutes, therefore it is expressed in cubic meters /hour or in litres/minute. Head means the maximum height difference that the machine can overcome when moving the water. For example, with a head of five metres, it means that there cannot be more than five meters between the surface of the water from which we suck with the pump and the point where we want to move it. The two points are indicated respectively as the lower basin and the upper basin. Then we can take into consideration the characteristics of density and viscosity, which are generally neglected even though they have a certain importance on the performance of electric pumps. Viscosity means the property that a given fluid has to resist flow. If the fluid is always water and therefore does not vary, the viscosity still varies depending on the pressure and temperature of the water. Density means the ratio of mass to volume of the fluid, since a less dense fluid floats on a denser fluid.
What are they for
There are various situations in which the use of this machine is necessary. And for each of these situations and functions there is a model that is right for you. Electric pumps are able to easily suck water collected in wells or coming from natural springs or even from artificial cisterns. While for a water supply for domestic and family use the most suitable solution is to install an autoclave or an automatic intervention pump. To be able to empty a flooded cellar or to pump water from one container to another, it is advisable to choose submersible models, also for when dirty water needs to be pumped. Other functions that they can perform are those of emptying a swimming pool, or a pond or ditch that has filled with water; remove water from a laundry room; or even pump from a rainwater collection container so that this water becomes usable. If you need a pump that allows you to transfer a large quantity of water in a short time, you can choose a high-power submersible one that allows you to pump quickly and very effectively. In fact, there are high power models also for moving dirty water, not just clean water.
If you want to move clean water containing impurities up to a diameter of 5 millimeters then we recommend using submerged ones. However, if you want to move dirty water containing impurities up to 38 millimeters in diameter, you can opt for the specific models for dirty water. There are basic models that are useful for multiple functions: for example they are perfect for watering, for increasing the pressure, for suction of tap water, rain water or even water containing high percentages of chlorine such as that of swimming pools and of hydromassage tubs. The basic models found on the market, in addition to being robust, are also light and easy to handle, therefore easier to use. It is advisable to prefer models that have a wide opening in order to facilitate filling the pump before it is used. Furthermore, the ergonomic handles with which they are often equipped make transport easier. If you want a pump that does not make too much noise when in operation, it is a good idea to choose one that has rubber feet, elements that at the same time ensure its stability and therefore avoid vibrations. Many models are equipped with a water drain which allows you to eliminate the residual water left in the pump in order to avoid not only the risk of damage due to frost but also the formation of mold and bad odors due to stagnant water. It is advisable to buy pumps made with top quality materials. To avoid possible damage and ensure that it always works safely, the best manufacturers have provided a ceramic pump coating and a double insulation system between the motor and the impeller. To protect the motor from the risk of overload, a thermal safety switch should be installed which trips when the motor overheats, automatically turning it off so that no damage occurs.
Regardless of the type and power of the electric pump, it will be made up of certain basic elements:
- an electric motor . This can work with induction or brushes, depending on whether the power is higher or lower respectively. The power, measured in kilowatts, allows us to understand what the consumption of the machine will be and how much electric current it absorbs when it is in operation, as well as how much force it transmits when pumping;
- a suction and compression block . This is the mechanical part of the pump. It is distinguished according to the way in which it manages to generate vacuum or compress a specific liquid;
- of the supports . These are generally load-bearing metal parts (in the case of pumps that do not come into contact with external liquids) or watertight coatings (in the case of pumps that are immersed in the liquid they are sucking).
Obviously the types of electric water suction pumps are different, they can generally be classified depending on what ways they use to create the vacuum needed for a liquid to move from one place to another.
- volumetric : the liquid is moved, therefore pushed or sucked, by means of a change in volume or a volume displacement. That is, if we change the volume very quickly, the pressure of the liquid will also vary accordingly;
- kinetic : by means of a force a dynamism is transmitted, in technical words a movement, to suck or push the liquid, in order to move it. This is the type of operation of linear, centrifugal and magnetofluid-dynamic pumps;
- immersion : these are models that are immersed in the tank containing the liquid you want to move. Thus they are below the level of the liquid that we intend to aspirate, therefore they do not need liquid retention systems. Therefore, immersion models are simpler because they require less restoration work since air gaps are never created during their operation.
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